Understanding the solar system in antiquity.
It is worthwhile to understand, that the first civilizations of mankind appeared on the planet earth from the Cosmos, and therefore they were fundamentally "Scientific understanding of the World", and perhaps deeper than modern ones. Therefore, for example, the Sumerian civilization immediately possessed Writing, and also the knowledge of the planets of the solar system, the exact solar-lunar calendar, the mathematical system of 60 with basis of 3*2*5, and the technologies of agriculture and construction.
Similar scientific knowledge was possessed by the ancient Egyptian civilization, which even described the universe in the basis, as the Trinity and Paired, and describing the human systems. Chinese civilization, which also appeared in very ancient times. And the ancient Elins civilization, most familiar to us, with the scientific description of the world through the Myths and gods of Olympus.
Indian civilization, possessing scientific knowledge, and confirming its scientific understanding through the Trinity and the Pair-action of the forces of the world. And where, between many symbols, I especially like borrowed from Indians the Trinity of life in the form of a picture – symbol, where the basis is Water, and the Forces of Universe are the largest and strongest beings of the planet - Whales.